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2. Study Helps

2.13 List of prefixes


List of prefixes


Die nachfolgenden Präfixe werden benutzt, um dezimale Vielfache und Sub-Vielfache von SI-Einheiten zu kennzeichnen.

The following prefixes are used to indicate decimal multiples and sub-multiples of SI units.


Liste von Präfixen. List of prefixes.
Vielfaches Präfix ZeichenDeutschEnglisch
multiple prefix symbolGermanEnglish
factor GB (UK)US
10-24 Yokto yoctoy
10-21 Zepto zeptoz
10-18 Atto attoa
10-15 Femto femtof Billiardstelquadrillionth
10-12 Piko picop
10-9 Nano nanon Milliardstelbillionth
10-6 Mikro microµ Millionstelmillionth
10-3 Milli millim Tausendstelthousandth
10-2 Zenti centic Hundertstelhundredth
10-1 Dezi decid Zehnteltenth
100 Einsone
101 Deka decada Zehnten
102 Hekto hectoh Hunderthundred
103 Kilo kilok Tausendthousand
106 Mega megaM Millionmillion
109 Giga gigaG Milliardethousand millions or milliard (dated); billionbillion
1012 Tera teraT Billionbillion (dated); trilliontrillion
1015 Peta petaP Billiardethousand billion (dated); quadrillionquadrillion
1018 Exa exaE Trilliontrillion (dated); quintillionquintillion
1021 Zetta zettaZ Trilliardesextillion
1024 Yotta yottaY Quadrillionseptillion
1027 Quadrilliardeoctillion
1030 Quintillionnontillion
1033 Quintilliardedecillion
1036 Sextillionundecillion
10100 Googol
10?    Myriade jl.ev08.056,02 myriad jl.ev08.056,02 myriad jl.ev08.056,02
10?   Äeone (dezil- lionenmal Dezillionen) jl.ev05.112,05 aeon (decil- lion times decillion) jl.ev05.112,05 eon (decil- lion times decillion) jl.ev05.112,05


This list helps me, and perhaps also you, among other things to translate from German to English and also the other way round.

The list could be continued. I once read the following: In terms of scale it was once estimated that the total of all human knowledge created from dawn of man to 2003 totalled 5 exabytes.

Here some high tech stuff: The proton, the loaded building block of every atomic nucleus, has a loading radius of about 0.84 femtometre (German: Billiardstel Meter).

Here some more high tech stuff: The file was written in three layers of nanostructured dots separated by five micrometres (five millionths of a meter). The scientists used a femtosecond laser, which emits pulses of light in femtoseconds (one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth of a second).

Here something to the gathering of data, the global surveillance mania: Up to now NSA analyses all collected data in the headquarter, but in Bluffdale/Utah a gigantic computer centre comes into being at the moment, which is to put the secret service into the position, to store and analyse data in the yottabyte range - one yottabyte corresponds to one trillion terabytes (1024 bytes). A further main focus of the two billion US dollar expensive complex is to lie in the decoding of crypto graphic information.

Here some more statements:
yottabytes (1024 bytes)
A yottabyte is a septillion bytes - so large that no one has yet coined a term for the next higher magnitude
A million exabytes equal a yottabyte.
undecillion (1036)
quadrillion (1015) operations a second, known as a petaflop

Now biology:
A protein is a structure of such gigantic improbability that unguided nature would probably not hit on it even if given the whole known universe to experiment on for a billion years. The odds against it happening by sheer chance are greater than one in ten-to-the-power-of-eighty, which is a figure larger than the total of electrons in the universe.
Your body contains about sixty million million cells.

Now a picture:


Now something about the atom:

. . . an atom consists largely of empty space. The nucleus is the positively charged centre of an atom and contains most of its mass. It is composed of protons, which have a positive charge, and neutrons, which have no charge. These constituent protons and neutrons collectively are called nucleons. Protons, neutrons, and the electrons surrounding them are long-lived particles present in all ordinary, naturally occurring atoms. Other subatomic particles may be found in association with these three types of particles. They can be created only with the addition of enormous amounts of energy, however, and are very short-lived.

All atoms are roughly the same size, whether they have three or 90 electrons. Approximately 50,000,000 atoms of solid matter lined up in a row would measure one centimetre (0.4 inch). A convenient unit of length for measuring atomic sizes is the angstrom (Å), defined as 10-10 metre. The radius of an atom measures 1-2 Å.

Compared with the overall size of the atom, the nucleus is even more minute. It is in the same proportion to the atom as a marble is to a football field. In volume, the nucleus takes up only 10-14 of the space in the atom-i.e., one part in 100,000,000,000,000. A convenient unit of length for measuring nuclear sizes is the femtometre (fm), which equals 10-15 metre. The diameter of a nucleus depends on the number of particles it contains and ranges from about 4 fm for a light nucleus such as carbon to 15 fm for a heavy nucleus such as lead. In spite of the small size of the nucleus, virtually all the mass of the atom is concentrated there. The protons are massive, positively charged particles, whereas the neutrons have no charge and are slightly more massive than the protons. The fact that nuclei can have anywhere from one to about 250 nucleons accounts for their wide variation in mass. The lightest nucleus, that of hydrogen, is 1,836 times more massive than an electron, while heavy nuclei are nearly 500,000 times more massive.


And now something about electrons; to be on the safe side, straigth away in English and German:

One ampere is equal to 6,240,000,000,000,000,000 electrons per second. That’s 6.24 trillion electrons per second in the continental European numbering system (6.24 quintillion electrons per second in the American system). Either way, it’s a lot.

Ein Ampere ist gleich Elektronen pro Sekunde. Das sind 6,24 Trillionen Elektronen pro Sekunde in dem kontinentalen europäischen Zahlen-System (6,24 Quintillion Elektronen pro Sekunde im amerikanischen System). Egal wie, das ist eine Menge.


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Genealogical table of Abraham and his family

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