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2.19 Distances


Frank L. Preuss




1. Measuring with ball method
2. Measuring with eye method
3. Measuring with measuring table
4. Measuring with theodolite
5. Distance table
6. Measuring with the method of scientists
7. Galaxies

Units of distance
Kinds of Galaxies


We are dealing here with distances, with remoteness.



1. Measuring with the ball method

This is a method, which one can use, when the dimension of the object, which distance is to be measured, is known.

The children are playing with a ball and kick it with the foot and we catch it and measure its diameter. It is 30 mm. We roll the ball a little away from us and now want to know how far away it is, and want to measure the distance without positioning a tape measure there, but do it, as we would do it with an object, to which we have no access or were we want to spare the effort to go there, for example to the other side of the valley, because there is a river in the valley or the valley is occupied by hostile troops or because we want to measure the distance to the moon and do not want to travel there just because of that.

We do the following. We take the tape measure again or the ruler and hold it parallel to our eyes and quite particular distance away from our eyes, let us say 100 mm away.

Now we measure the diameter of the ball in this situation, therefore so that we hold the tape measure in that direction, in which the ball is, and measure the diameter of the ball, which we see under these conditions.

Let us say we measure 15 mm.

Now we put the three values, which we have, into a ratio to calculate the sought-after value, the fourth.

It is a triangle ratio, where the one angle of the triangles, which is important to us, remains the same. And since the angle does not change, but remains the same, we need to take no angle into account, therefore do no trigonometric calculations, but simply calculate with side ratios.

We have two triangles, which both have the same angles. The known triangle starts with the eyes and then goes to the beginning of the ruler and from there to the measuring value of the ruler and from there again back to the eyes. The second triangle also starts with the eyes, goes from there to one side of the ball, and then to the other side of the ball, and then back to the eyes. And this distance from the eyes to the ball is the sought-after value, which we want to calculate.

The distance of the ball, the sought-after size therefore, relates to the real diameter of the ball, as the distance of the ruler from the eye to the apparent diameter of the ball.

The distance of the ball we call D and then the ratio of these 4 sizes if as follows: D to 300 is as 100 to 15. And then is D = 30 times 100 divided by 15. And that is 200 mm. Or 30*100/15 = 200 mm.

The following picture shows at the very top three views of the ball. And that in three different distances:


To the left the ball is shown in its size, as it presents itself in 100 mm before our eyes. Next to it in a size, when the ball is further away and we then measure it in 100 mm distance and measure 22 mm. Then its distance is 30*100/22 = 136 mm. And to the right from it the ball is shown, when it is still further away and we then measure 16 mm in 100 mm distance. Then the distance is 30*100/16 = 188 mm away from our eyes.

Below this view of the ball in its three sizes and in its three distances the plan of these three situations shown.

We have said this method works then, when the dimension of the object, which distance is to be measured, is known.

When I know the length of my vehicle, let us say 20000 mm, and my vehicle stands at right angles to me in the distance D, and I want to know, how many mm the vehicle is away from me, then I hold my tape measure 100 mm before my eyes and measure so the length of the vehicle, and when I then measure 200 mm, then D is 20000*100/200 = 10000 mm. The vehicle is therefore 10 m away from me.

When I want know the distance of a road, which runs at right angles to my line of sight, and is straight and horizontal and I also know the distance of the street lights there, let us say 100 m, then I can at night, when these lights are nicely visible as a chain of lights, measure 10 such distances with my tape measure, in 100 mm distance before my eyes, and when I then measure 10 mm, then the distance of this street from me is D = 10*100000*100/10 = 10000000 mm = 10000 m = 10 km.

When I know the diameter of the moon, let us say 3474 km, and I now measure its diameter, as I see it, therefore the tape measure is 100 mm away from my eyes, and I measure 0.9 mm, then the distance of the moon from me is D = 3474 km * 100 mm / 0.9 mm = 3474 km * 111 = 385 000 km.

For the sun this would be D = 1392700 * 100 / 1 = 139270000 km = 139,270,000 km.

The long side of the triangle is 100 times as long as the short one. When the short side of the triangle is 1 mm, then the long side is 100 mm, and when the short side of the triangle is 1,392,700 km, then the long side is 100 times as long: 139,279,000 km.

When I have a look at the window on the other side of the road, then I can estimate that it is 0.8 m wide. On my tape measure it is 7 mm. The building is then D = 800 * 100 / 7 = 11,5 m away from me.

A man is about 1700 mm high. On my ruler, which I hold 100 mm before my eyes, I measure 10 mm. The man is D = 1700*100/10 = 17 m away from me.

So this ball method therefore has the disadvantage that the size of the object, of which I want to measure the distance, must be known to me.

I call it ball method, because with a ball the sight, from which one sees the object, and measures it, is not important and because most of the celestial bodies, which I indeed actually want to measure, also have the shape of a ball.



2. Measuring with the eye method

I can also measure the distance of an object without knowing the dimension of it. I use my eyes. I use the fact that my two eyes are spatially separated through a distance. I do two measurements, one with my one eye and the other with my other eye and then I use the distance between my two eyes as third known fact of my triangle calculation and with it calculate the fourth, unknown one, the object’s distance.

First I measure this distance between my two eyes. I fix a ruler horizontally at my mirror in the bathroom, at eye level.

I then close my right eye and look with my left eye into my left eye in the mirror. And then I move my head so that the line between my left eye and my left eye in the mirror is in one straight line with the value zero of my ruler. Then I close my left eye, without moving my head on that occasion, and open my right eye and look with my right eye into the right eye in the mirror and then read with my right eye the distance of my two eyes on the ruler. I must not move my head on that occasion. The distance of my eyes from the mirror is optional. I can repeat the measuring at different distances from the mirror.

Let us say, I measure a distance of 70 mm and I then have this distance from my left eye ( L ) to my right eye ( R ) and call it LR.

Upon this distance of LR = 70 mm I now base my whole following measuring method. This distance is my base line and from the two ends of this line I do my observations and my measurements.

I do two measurements. The first with my left eye, and the second with my right eye.

I read off my measurements from a ruler, which I hold at a certain distance from my eyes. And this distance I can choose.

I now choose again a distance of 100 mm for my measuring plane. And this distance between my eyes and the measuring plane I call A.

I now measure the distance of a point P, which has a distance, which I call D, from my eye. And this measure, which I now measure, is not the measure from my eye to the point P, but the measure, which I measure on a ruler, which is 100 mm away from my eyes and which is parallel to my two eyes. And this measure I call M. M is my measurement.

This measurement of M on my ruler I do this way: I close my right eye and bring my left eye in a straight line with the point P and the value zero of my ruler. Then, without moving my head, I close my left eye and open my right eye and look with my right eye to the point P and then read off from the ruler the measurement M. The value to be measured is in a straight line with the point P and my right eye.

I now have four values, of which three are known. The known ones are LR = 70 mm. Then there is A = 100 mm. Und the measuring result M let us say is M = 20 mm.

Then is the ratio of these 4 sizes the following: D / LR = (D – A) / M.

Then D is, the sought-after size, the distance of the point P from my eyes, D = (A * LR) / (LR – M).

Und the three known values put into this formula then results in for D = (100 * 70) / (70 – 20) = 7000 / 50 = 140 mm.

The following diagram shows this value, and others.


Eye distance table



From this diagram the following table results:


Calculation for eye distance method
D LR A M = LR-(A*LR)/D Delta M = M-previousM
mm mm mm mm mm


One can now use this table to calculate more values, when one, for example, wants to have more accurate line divisions on the card. Or when one wants to put in one’s own eye distance LR or when wants to choose the distance A otherwise.

When I now have a card instead of the ruler, on which the calculated values have already been entered, then I can read off the distances directly.


Eye distance measuring card:



This eye distance measuring card is not accurate, because I made it with a spread sheet program and it does not allow me to determine column width so, as I want it. I indeed enter the exact value, but the program does not accept that, and then chooses a value that suits it.

A photographer wants to photograph an object and wants to measure the distance from him to the object. He takes his card and holds it 100 mm before his eyes and closes his right eye and with his left eye he takes bearings to the object via the zero point of his card, and then he closes his left eye and takes again bearings to the object with his right eye and reads off the distance on the card. He has blinked twice with his eyes and already he has made the measurement.

If he does something like this all the time, he could mount the card from a head band with the exact distance of 100 mm before his eyes.

One can also extent the card at the bottom by 100 mm, and then bend this extension and use it as distance keeper.

One can draw this card also on translucent paper, or on glass, so that one can read it off from both sides. When one can for example see better with his left eye on short distances, then one does the first look with the right eye and then the second with the left – for reading off. Or one makes himself a card which right from the beginning starts at the right and one enters the values M beginning from R.

If one wants to measure smaller distances than 100 mm with such a card, then one must make a card extra for it, since the values M depend on the distance A.

When one makes A, therefore the distance of the card from the eyes, larger, perhaps 1000 mm, then one can also measure larger distances with still good results. A selfy stick could be of help there to hold the card before the eyes.

One can therefore make a card, which is based on the distance A = 1 metre; but one can also spar this and use a card, which is based on a distance of 100 mm and then increase the read off value tenfold.

And also a distance of A = 10 m one can have and then increase the read off value hundredfold. This process is just based on the human eye distance and the further the card is away from the eyes the more the reading off becomes a problem.

With such a card one can therefore measure all distances, also smaller than 100 mm. Also all large distances one can measure with it, only from a certain distance away from the object to be measured the measure then soon results in the result of infinity.

But these considerations also show that, when one once leaves the human eye distance aside, and simply makes two observations, with both eyes, from two different positions, which relate to a distance measuring line, quite large distances can be measured.

Distance measurements, which build up upon a base line, are most useful, when the distances to be measured are in the same order of magnitude as the length of the base line. The measuring with the eye distance therefore only brings satisfying results to up to a few metres distance from the eye to the object to be measured. Then the distance which one reads off there soon gets to infinity.

This fact now means that there exists a still better possibility of measuring the distance between the two eyes. One fixes a ruler horizontally on eye level at the window pane and closes the right eye and with the left eye one brings an object in the distance in a straight line with zero point of the ruler and then, without moving the head, one closes the left eye and looks with the right eye to the same object and reads off the value of the line of sight on the ruler.

One can do this also at night, and use a light in the distance, also a star, and since a light in the distance can make a very small area on the window pane, one can read off a very accurate value. Such a small light can be a more exact target, than the centre of an eye, which one indeed has to estimate.

One must just pay attention to the fact that the window must be perpendicular to the line of sight. With a mirror the mirror is automatically perpendicular to the line of view, when one looks, with one eye closed, into one’s own eye.

It also helps to put the chin onto a firm support; it prevents involuntary movements of the head.

With the measuring of the distance of the eyes before the mirror the distance of the eyes from the mirror is of no influence on the measurement, because both directions of view are parallel. With the measuring at the window theoretically really, but when the distance of the point aimed for is large, the influence can be disregarded.

I have already measured the diameter of the sun twice, the apparent diameter. Once at the window pane, when my eye was 100 mm away from it and got about 1 mm. Then a second time when my eye was 1 m away, and got a value of about 10 mm. Today now I again observed a sunset and wanted to see whether the sun there shows itself with a diameter of 100 mm, when I am 10 m away from the window. I therefore fixed two strips of black paper with a distance of 100 mm at the window pane and the sunset was very nice and there were no clouds. And when I so looked at the sun, from 10 m distance from the window, and found my assumption confirmed, I closed my one eye and looked with only one eye at the sun and after that I closed the other eye and looked with the other, because I was just used to do it, since I was still busy with the distance of my eyes and with the measuring with it, and then found that the position of the sun moved by about 70 mm. And so I found this second method of measuring the distance of my eyes – and tried it out immediately, as just described above.

You can also take two rulers and hold them at different distances parallel before your eyes and then bring the two zero points in a straight line with the left eye and read off with the right eye the two values on both rulers, which are the same.

This read off value you can then check by you drawing two lines on a sheet of paper which are parallel and have the read off value as distance. You bring the left line into a straight line with the left eye and then check whether the right line is in a straight line with the right eye.

One can also put the thumb and the index finger on the closed eyes and then measure the distance of these two fingers and then also improve the measured result with the just mentioned method.

When one has two measuring staffs, one can arrange them parallel to each other, and then bring the two zero points in line with a point, which distance one wants to measure, and then take a reading at some second place, and from these two values and from the distance of the two measuring staffs calculate the distance of the point – also by making a drawing of it.



3. Measuring with a measuring table

We have a board on which a square of one metre side length is drawn. All four corners have a nail sticking out. The side towards the observer is the length LR and is one metre long = LR = 1 m. The left nail is L and the right is R. The side away from the observers is FG and is one metre long and the nail on the left is F and the nail on the right is G. Between F and G is a tape measure from zero to 1 m.

The distance between L and F is A. And A = 1 m.

From L to F a point P is aimed at, which distance D from L is to be determined. Then P is aimed at from R and the value read off the tape measure. Let us say it is M = 0,960 m.

The ratio o the two triangles to each other is D/1 = (D-1)/M.

D is then D = 1/(1-M).

In our measured case D is then D = 1/(1-0.960) = 1/0.040 = 25 m.

One can also immediately read off from the right side, therefore from G the 0.040 m (40 mm), and then take the reciprocal value of it and then has the distance.

For the measurement of the distance of a further point, P2, the reading off is M = 0.5 m. The distance from G is then also 0.5 m. The reciprocal value of this is 2 m. And that is then D2.

One can now determine the readings off for further points at different distances, and with them draw a scale, on which one can directly read off the distances.

One could have the following table:


Calculation for measuring table method
D LR A M = LR-(A*LR)/D Delta M = M-previousM
m m m m m


And this scale one can then fix between the points F and G and can then immediately read off the distances of a point.

An example of an application of such a measurement table could be the development of a plot of land. There are trees on the plot of land and they are to remain preserved and now the man wants to have a drawing, where he can exactly fix, where buildings and access roads and sewage lines are to be build, which remain away from the trees.

He takes his measurement table, aims at the first tree, via L, draws a line in that direction, then aims at the tree via R and measures the distance to this tree and can now already enter the position of this tree.

He can start for example with that point of the plot of land, which is furthest to the left, and its direction is then the direction L to F. And then he aims at that tree, which is furthest to the left, and records its direction and after that the direction of all trees. Then he measures the distance of point of the plot of land and enters it one the already existing line. Then he turns the measuring table, therefore the direction L to F, in the direction of the first tree, and measures its distance, and records it on the already existing direction line. And then he turns the measuring table to the second tree and marks measured distance on its line, and so he also does it with all other trees.

And at the end he takes that point of the plot of land, which is furthest to the right. With it he then also has the orientation in north south direction.

He then has a plan, in which the positions of all trees are entered and can now plan his structures there and draw them in his drawing there, where no trees are.

He can also do the whole thing height wise; therefore measure the ground heights of the trees, and can then from that even determine the contours of the plot of land.

When one just wants to measure distances, one just needs the four edges of this measuring table and those can consist of four rods and be foldable and easy to transport. And then one can still use them as a measuring table, by putting a drawing underneath.

This survey device must not be square, and the side length must not be one metre. We have just assumed that to simplify the calculation. It can for example be a rectangle and the side length can be as large or as small, as it suits one. They can kilometres long, and consequently supply quite useful values.



4. Measuring with a theodolite

Instead of now standing on point L and then on point R, I could also put a theodolite first on point L and then measure the angle between P and R and then put the theodolite on point R, and measure the angel between P and L, and from these two angles I could then determine the distance of the point P with the help of the distance between the two positions of the theodolite. I could do trigonometric calculations, which are relatively simple; but I could also enter the values to scale on paper, and so determine the distance.

With the use of a theodolite one has the advantage that one can use relatively large base lines for the measuring.

One can therefore have a theodolite position on a rise and a second on another one, from which one can see the first, and where one can then also determine the distance of these two theodolite positions. Then one can have perhaps a baseline of several kilometres.

One can of course measure angles from these two positions on rises also with every other method, only the measuring of the distance between these two points is already another thing; it is based on a whole system of existing survey points, which have developed in relative long time and are again and again measured and consequently checked and when one point gives problems, then that quickly goes around with those people, who are dealing with it.

One can for example have a known survey point, but which then starts to move, because the surface of the earth indeed also moves all the time or it comes to human made movements, for example through settlements caused by building loads or through underground changes caused by mining or earthquakes.

Then one can have theodolite positions, which are on different continents. And then one can take as base line the diameter of the orbit of the earth around the sun. And with space travel one can still have larger base lines, from which one can aim at distant celestial bodies, and measure the different angles.

It is only so that with all these measurements it is about ratios in a triangle. And often one can even still manage without angles, where one just uses the length of sides, because an angle is actually a description of the ratio of two sides of a triangle.

When one has the lateral lengths of all three sides of a triangle, the triangle is given. When one has the angles of all three corners of a triangle, the triangle is only given according to its form, but not according to its size; I then have information about the ratio of the sides, but know nothing about the lateral lengths.

When one works with a theodolite it can be advisable to first check the instrument. One has a look at one full circle and turns it up to 360o and when it then does not start at the same time at zero, but carries on to 400o, then it can happen that when one wants to set out a right angle and takes 90o, that this is not so good.

When we calculate with lateral lengths, then we have two sides of a known triangle and determine one lateral length of an unknown triangle, but which has the same angles, as the known one. When we work with angles, therefore with a theodolite for example, then we have one lateral length of an unknown triangle and also two angles of this unknown triangle, and out of this determine a second lateral length.

Always a fourth value is therefore wanted. Three values are known, and the fourth, the unknown, is wanted.



5. Distance table

See 2.20 Distance table



6. Measuring with the method of the scientists

A glass of water stands before me. The glass is 500 mm away from me. It is the point P. I take my eye distant measuring card and see that it is so. My two eyes and the glass form the three corners of a triangle. All values of the triangle are fixed. There is once the distance between my two eyes, LR, and it is 70 mm. Then there is the distance from the glass to my face; that is 500 mm. With it I have two values. The third is the fact that it is an equilateral triangle. The distance L from P is also the distance R from P.

The centre of the line from L to R, therefore there where my nose is, is 500 mm far away from P. This line between this centre, which we call M, and P is perpendicular to the line between L and R. The triangle between L and M and P is a rectangular triangle. The triangle between R and M and P as well. Both are of the same size.

With both sides of the two triangles the longer sides have a certain inclination to the common line and this inclination determines the form of the triangle, not the size, but the form, and with this inclination all triangles can be calculated, which have the same inclination, have the same form, so as we have used it up to now in our examination.

And this inclination can be considered as angle. And there trigonometry, the calculation of angles, comes in. The angle at point P, between the direction to L and the direction to M, we call Alpha.

The tangent of the angle Alpha is LM/MP = 35/300 = 0.117. And Alpha is then 6.7 degrees. This is a simple description of the ratio of these two sides to each other and with it one can calculate simpler.

I can for example now calculate the angle at L directly. It is 90 degrees minus 6.7 degrees = 83.3 degrees. And this angle I could call Beta.

I could also draw the triangle and measure all wanted values from there, but the smaller an angle gets, the more unpractical such a solution is.

I can now determine such a triangle in this way that I measure the angle Beta. When I have the angle Beta, and I have the distance LM, I can calculate the distance of the point P.

I can now, for example, choose the basic line quite large, and measure the angle to the point P at L and at R and then calculate the distance of the point P.

"The method of determining distances with the help of the yearly trigonometric parallaxes fails, when the amount of the parallaxes comes close to the average error. That is already the case with a distance of about 100 light-years. Unfortunately only a very small part of the universe can be covered with this method. Beyond the limit of about 100 light-years other, less direct and mostly less exact methods must be used."

A parallax is the apparent displacement in the position of any celestial object caused by the change in the position of the observer.

So when I have a look at something with my left eye only, and then with my right eye only, then an apparent displacement of that object is caused.

And I can notice this, by comparing the position, the apparent position, with something close to the direction of my view, but at a different distance.

So when I look out of the window then I see a lantern. Now I look at the lantern with my left eye only and it has a certain distance to the window frame and when I look with my right eye, then it has an apparent position to the window frame that is different. It has moved to the right.

When I now look at the window frame with my left eye only, then the window frame has a certain distance to the lantern. When I now look with my right eye only, then the window frame has a different apparent position to the lantern. It has moved to the left.

Now when I look at the sun at sunset, with my left eye only, then the sun has a certain distance to the window frame. When I now look with my right eye only at the sun, then the sun has moved to the right.

So as we are really wanting to determine the distance of stars with our examinations of how distances can be determined, let us have a look at an example, where already all values are known and see, how they relate to each other.

Our example is that star, that is closer than all other stars to us, except the Sun, and that star is Proxima Centauri. It is 4.2 light-years away from us. And that is 40 x 1012 km. And it has an angle, measured at Proxima Centauri, that has 0.762 arcseconds.

Since it is the very nearest star, it was also called Latin Proxima Centauri.

We use a triangle to reconstruct the situation. The triangle looks like this:


At the right end of the horizontal line is the star, Proxima Centauri. At the left end of this horizontal line is our own star, the Sun. Below the Sun is E and that is our Earth on its orbit, the red circle. The distance of Proxima Centauri from us r, 4.2 light years and that are 4.2 * 9.46 * 1012 km = 40 * 1012 km.

The distance from us to the sun is a = AU = Astronomical Unit = 150 * 106 km = 150,000,000 km.

So the angel Beta is measured from two points of the orbit of the Earth around the sun. And they are a quarter of a year apart. And the baseline of the triangle is AU.

The angle p, measured from Proxima Centauri, is 0.762 arcseconds. When they speak of arcseconds, then the word arc refers to a part of the circumference of the circle. And that is to indicate, that these seconds are not time seconds, but spatial seconds.

Now 0.762 arcseconds are 0.762/60 = 0.0127 arcminutes, and that are 0.0127/60 = 0.000211667 arcdegrees.

The tangent of 0.000211667 arcdegrees is 3.69418 * 10-6.

And the tangent is also AU/r. It is actually the sine, but this difference does not matter with such small angles.

And the distance r is then r = 150,000,000/0.00000369418 = 4.06044 * 1013 km. And that are 40 * 1012 km.

So we have come, with our calculations here, to the same result that we find in an astronomical book.

And the tangent is AU/r = 150,000,000/40,000,000,000,000 = 3.75 * 10-6.

So we have come, with our calculations here, to the same result that we find in an astronomical book.

The base line of the triangle, which is used with this calculation, is therefore the diameter of the orbit of the earth around the sun and that are two AU. In the distance of half a year the angle Beta is therefore measured, the angle between the sun and the star. And that is a little less than 90 degrees. Then one has two angles of the triangle and the sum of that one subtracts from 180 degrees and then has 2 * p, the third angle of the triangle. And p is half of it.

With Proxima Centauri p = 0,762 arcseconds.

With a theodolite one has a measuring circle of may be a hand span in diameter and with an observatory it is much bigger.

When we have a measuring circle of 100 m diameter, then the measuring length for 360 degrees = 100 * 3.14 = 314 m. For 1 second it is then 314000/(360*60*60) = 314000/129600 = 0,24 mm. One could therefore make the measuring circle as great as one likes in order to improve the accuracy, but that would not overcome the limits stated above.

And that is the method of determining distances with the help of the yearly trigonometric parallaxes. And the astronomers call it the stellar parallax. And the angle p they call parallax.

And then they still have the sun parallax and the moon parallax.

With the moon parallax they have as base line two points on earth. A very short base line is the line between our two eyes. And the bigger this base line is the more realistic is then the distance determination. And that particularly, when it is about large distances, as in astronomy.

With the sun and with the moon and with the planets, therefore with objects in our solar system, all this makes sense, but the further away it gets the more problematic it gets.



7. Galaxies

The nucleus of an atom has here a diameter of 10 fm. The diameter of an atom is here 2 Å. The distance from one atom to another is also 2 Å, because they are directly next to each other. This distance is the distance from the centre of the one atom to the centre of the other atom. The size ratio of the size of the atom to the size of the nucleus of the atom
= 2 Å to 10 fm
= 2 x 10-13 km / 10 x 10-18 km
= 2 x 104.
That is 20,000.

Now comes a table, which brings information about units of distances, which therefore also involves such units like fm and Å:



Units of distances
Units of lengths km Comparison 1 Comparison 2
Name Sym- bol metriccomp- uter- ese Value U- nit Value U- nit
femtometrefm1 x 10-181.00E-180.000010000000Å
ÅngstromÅ1 x 10-131.00E-13=100 000fm=0.100000000000nm
nanometrenm1 x 10-121.00E-12=10Å=0.000000001000m
metrem1 x 10-031.00E-03=1 000 000 000nm=0.001000000000km
kilometrekm1 x 1001.00E+00=1 000m=0.000000006667AU
astro- nomical unitAU1.50 x 1081.50E+08=150 000 000km=0.000015900000Ly
light-yearLy9.46 x 10129.46E+12=63 100AU=0.306600000000pc
parsecpc3.09 x 10133.09E+13=3.262Ly=0.001000000000kpc
kiloparseckpc3.09 x 10163.09E+16=1 000pc=0.001000000000Mpc
megaparsecMpc3.09 x 10193.09E+19=1 000kpc=0.001000000000Gpc
gigaparsecGpc3.09 x 10223.09E+22=1 000Mpc


The sun has a diameter of 1,392,700 km. The distance between the sun and the next star, Proxima Centauri, is 4.2 light-years or 40,000,000,000,000 km. This distance we take as diameter of the solar system. A solar system is directly next to the next solar system, because the attraction influence of a body one cannot limit; it becomes there ineffective, where the attraction influence of another body becomes greater. The size ratio of the size of the solar system to the size of the sun
= 40,000,000,000,000 km / 1,392,700 km
= 28,721,189.
That is about 30,000,000.

The size of the Milky Way is given as 100,000 light-years. The distance to the next galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy, is 2,400,000 light-years. This we take as the size of our galaxy, for the star, which is in the centre of our galaxy, also has an influence to there, where a corresponding star, therefore the centre of the Andromeda Galaxy, then has more influence.

The size ratio of the size of the Milky Way to the size of the solar system
= 2,400,000 Ly / 40,000,000,000,000 km
= 2,000,000 Ly/ 4.228 Ly
]= 577,000.
That is about 600,000.

When one takes over the size ratio of the solar system to the sun for the galaxy, then one comes to the size of the star in the centre of the galaxy to
= 2,400,000 Lj / 30,000,000
= 0.08 Ly.
That are about 750,000,000,000 km.

Two galaxies, the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy, belong to the Local Group.

The Local Group is a group of galaxies, which belong to the Virgo Super Group, and the Virgo Super Group is a group of galaxies, which belong to the Laniakea Super Group.

The following table gives information:



System Diameter of the systems Diameter of the nucleus Ratio
Name Diameter Conversion km Diameter Conversion km Diameter of the system to the diameter of the nucleus
Atom2Å1.00E-13km/Å2.00E- 1310fm1.00E-18km/fm 1.00E-172.00E+04
Solar system4.2Lj9.46E +12km/Lj3.97E+131392700km1km/km 1.39E+062.85E+07
Milky Way2 500 000Lj9.46E +12km/Lj2.37E+19
Local Group10 000 000Lj9.46E +12km/Lj9.46E+19
Virgo Super Cluster100 000 000Lj9.46E +12km/Lj9.46E+20
Laniakea Super Cluster520 000 000Lj9.46E +12km/Lj4.92E+21


In consideration of the information, which then now follows, the following results: The Local Group is a group of galaxies, which belongs to the Virgo Super Group, and the Virgo Super Group is a group of galaxies, which belongs to the Laniakea Super Group, and all these groups belong to the galaxy of the second kind and are there parts of this galaxy of the second kind, as for example spiral arms coiling out from a central bulge, the nucleus.

For the ratio of the sun to earth, and also of the star in the centre of our Milky Way to our sun, we find information in the work of Jakob Lorber. In the works of Jakob Lorber and of Bertha Dudde there is much information about the cosmos. Particular information about the sizes of the cosmos one finds in the work of Jakob Lorber callled "Das große Evangelium Johannes" (The great Gospel of John) and there in Volume 06, chapter 245.

This chapter 245, jl.ev06.245,01-20, now follows:

   01] Said the scribe: »Indeed, Lord and master, now everything is also clear to me; but we all together will achieve nothing against the power of world rulers! And they will therefore not change their punishing codices for this reason and will pass their death sentences as always, and your teaching in this respect will not bend the mind of the great men of the world and rulers!«

   02] Say I: »What you know that I certainly also know, how it stands with the great men of the world in all the world. I have also not spoken to them, but just to you! But you will also come to the great men of the world and be able to announce my will to them. Who want to accept it, they will also go well and happily, - but who will not accept it, but keep their court as before, they will also receive their reward afterwards from there, from where they have taken their court; for those who do not have it from me and afterwards also do not want to have from me, they can certainly have it from nowhere else than only from hell, and so they will also harvest for it the reward from it! «

   03] Said the learned Pharisee: » Yes, Lord, when they hear and understand the parable from the lost son, they will not care about hell too much!«

   04] Said I: » You should worry about something else! The time within which the pronounced hope is given to the lost son (this is the great world person in infinite creation space), is not that short as you imagine. I will show you the duration of the judged world, and thus listen!

   05] The earth is surely not such a small world body, and the sun is about a thousand times thousand times larger then the whole earth; but already the next central sun is more than ten times hundred-thousand times bigger than this sun, which illuminates this earth and soon will rise, and has more body content then all the thousand times thousand times thousand planetary suns including all their earths and moons and comets, which all, in for you unthinkable wide stretched circles, move with their attachments with great speed around such a central sun, and still, especially the most distant, often require thousand times thousand earth years, to only complete only one wide orbit and arrive back again at the old spot.

   06] Now however, there exists a second kind of central sun, around which in even endless bigger orbits whole sun regions with their central suns move, of which the most distant regions require already one aeon earth years, to only once circle this second type of central sun. One such second central sun, around which whole sun regions with their central suns orbit, together with their thousand times thousand sun regions, we want to call a solar universe.

   07] Now imagine for you again an equal number of such solar universes! They again have for no human mind measurable depth and distance, a common central sun, which in itself as a world body is ten times thousand times bigger than all the solar universes which in unmeasurable wide circles orbit it.

   08] This solar universe group with one central sun, we want to call a solar super universe. There again exists for you an uncountable number of such super universes, and all have in an endless depth one most immense large primordial sun, around which they orbit without interference of their many separate movements like one body in only for an angel measurable wide circle, and such a sun- and world body system around one primordial sun, to make it a tangible concept, we want to call a sun- and world body shell-globe, because all these previously mentioned super universes which orbit the primordial central sun in all directions, present an unmeasurable large ball and as a result of their necessary nearly thought quick movement and its effective centrifugal force to the outside in for you of course not measurable depth and distance, form a kind of shell, which density equals the atmospheric air of this earth and has a thickness from the inside to the outside, if measured as thousand times thousand aeons the wideness of this earth, would still be much too small.«

   09] Said the scribe and the Roman and My Lazarus: » Lord, we are seized by dizziness regarding this most terrible size of Your creation! Can forever an angel oversee and understand such truth?«

   10] Said I: »Certainly; because otherwise he would not be an angel! However, give up your dizziness, for there is a lot more to come; since now I have nearly shown to you only one spot of the size of My creation!

   11] We were arrived at the great shell as a common encirclement of all the countless many super universes. How this shell is formed, I already mentioned briefly. But why is it formed?

   12] See, everything in itself as a whole, from the biggest to the smallest, has as a cover and as protection of its most artful inside, an outer skin! But this outer skin has also still the very important purpose, that it adsorbs in itself the impurity from the inner mechanism of an enlivened body and as unsuitable for the organic life, conducts it to the outside, but in return then soaks up purified life nourishment from the outside and conducts it as life strengthening to the inner organic body life mechanism. From this you can at least form a clear idea, why I call the whole sun- and world- super universe compendium a shell-globe.

   13] However, do not ask about the size and length of diameter of such a shellglobe! Since for man there hardly ever could be thought of a figure on this earth, through which the distance from this earth to the sun, which is 44 times thousand times thousand hours walking, when taken as a unit measure to determine the shell-globe diameter, then aeon times aeon of such distance would hardly be enough for a solar super universe, of which there nearly exist countless many. Thus I nevertheless have ascertained the concept of the nearly endless size of a shell-globe in you, and on this foundation we can build further.

   14] See, such a shell-globe is actually only a single dot in My large creation space! How this must be thought of and must be understood, I will show you straight away.

   15] Imagine for yourself now outside this most enormous large shell or outer skin of a previously described globe, an enormously wide space in all directions as totally empty, and this for so far out, that someone with even the sharpest eyes, would see the nearly endless large shell-globe as nothing more than a most smallest weak shimmering little dot, and in the opposite direction another, which of course would be again a shell-globe. This more or less would give you a measure of space between two shell-globes, the one as big as the other, but nevertheless, at half way, already shrivelling to a nearly invisible shimmering dot because of the most immense distance, and as such we now have learned about two neighbouring shell-globes.

   16] But what will you say now, if I tell you, that their exist in the endless large creation space for your still so clear human mind truly countless many such shellglobes, which, according to My order, represent in its entirety, a very precise man?

   17] Question: How large must such a man be, if already one shell-globe is so endlessly big and still aeons times aeons times bigger the distance between one shell-globe to the next!

   18] But also this man is in its outer surround, just like every single shell-globe, covered with a type of skin. Of course is such a skin still inexpressively thicker - to speak quite clearly - than the ‘skin’ of a shell-globe, but nevertheless has the same purpose in general and for your concepts endlessly larger, than the skin of a single shell-globe. You now are thinking what would exist outside this man, and on what is this nearly endless large man standing, and what is he as a person doing.

   19] Outside this cosmic man the free ether space continues in all directions to infinity, in which this man flies in a for your concepts truly endless large circle, driven by My will, with a for you incomprehensible speed, and this because of the nourishment from the most infinite ether sea, in which he swims like a fish. Since in free, large ether space there is nowhere a top or bottom and no being can fall to any side, this man stands quite good and solidly in ether space like this earth, the sun and all the aeons times aeons suns in a shell-globe.

   20] His active destination is, to ripen all the large thoughts and ideas of God contained in him for the subsequent most freest and independent spirit life destination.«

It emerges from this information from Jakob Lorber that there are four kinds of galaxies.

There is information about size, which gets repeated, and that is the volume of a body. And with the bodies it is about central suns. And a central sun it the centre of a galaxy.

The first value, which Jesus gives, is more than one million. And about this value the sun is larger than the earth.

First we want to see, whether it is there really about volume, or not perhaps about diameter.

When one speaks about the size of a sphere, one could also mean the diameter of the sphere. Then the ratio of the sun to the earth would be 1,392,700 km to 12,756 km. And that is 109. The diameter of the sun is 109 times as big as that of the earth.

The volume of the sun is 1,392,700^3*3.14/6 = 1.414E+18 km3. The volume of the earth is 12,756^3*3.14/6 = 1.086E+12 km3.

And the ratio of the volume of the sun to the volume of the earth is then 1.414E+18 km3 to 1.086E+12 km3 and that is 1.3 million. And that is about 1 million.

With this information from Jesus, when he speaks of sizes, it is therefore about volume. The volume of the sun is approximately one million, 1.3 million, bigger than the volume of the earth.

The central sun of the galaxy of the first kind is then more than 1 million times as large as the sun. The volume of the sun is 1.414E+18 km3 and the volume of the central sun of our galaxy is then more than 1.414E+24 km3.

The diameter of the central sun of our galaxy is then more than (1.414E+24*6/3.14)^(1/3) = 1.39E+08 km.

This is then the diameter of the central sun of the first kind. Now Jesus gives us the diameter of the central sun of the fourth kind:

jl.nson.007,04] Nun denket euch, wenn der Durchmesser dieser Hauptzentralsonne schon eine so lange Linie bildet, daß, um dieselbe zu überwandern, selbst das Licht bei mehr als einer Trillion Jahre zu tun hätte, so wird das ganze Volumen eines solchen Körpers doch sicher etwas sehr Bedeutendes in Hinsicht der naturmäßigen Größe ausmachen müssen. Wenn aber dieser Körper für eure Begriffe schon so endlos kolossal ist, wird da nicht auch dieses große Volumen der Materie gegen den Mittelpunkt zu von allen möglichen Außenpunkten einen für euch unbegreiflich schweren Druck ausüben?

The diameter of the central sun of the fourth kind is therefore more than 1.00E+18 light-years, and that are more than 9.46E+30 km.

Now for the diameters of the central suns of the second and the third kind we just interpolate the approximate values and then get these diameters: 4.90E+15 km and 2.15E+23 km.

Now follows a table, where these values are shown:



Kinds of galaxies
Num- ber of kind Name of galaxy Central star of galaxy Source info: verse of jl.ev06 chapter 245 Details
Name of central star Diameter of central star Diameter of central star
Earth12,756 = 1.3E+04km1.4E-09Ly05
Sun1,392,700 = 1.4E+06km1.5E-07Ly05
1Milky WayCentral sun1.4E+08km1.5E-05Ly 05
2Sun world universeSecond central sun4.9E+15km5.2E+02Ly06Sun area
3Sun universe universeCentral sun2.2E+23km2.3E+10Ly07-08
4Sun and world shell globe original central sun, Regulus9.5E+30km1.0E+18Ly08Sphere, shell, wrap- ping, skinning around, sun and world universe universe comp- endium, globe, Regulus
5this man 18large world man, Lost Son


This table therefore allows a reader to form a judgement about information of distances as they for once come from scientists, and as they on the other hand come from spiritual writings.

Regulus, in the constellation Leo, is here the example.

The astronomers give for Regulus a diameter of 3.2 sun diameters or 4E+06 km, and a distance of 85 light-years.

Here a quote:

Jakob Lorber
Das große Evangelium Johannes (The great Gospel of John), 1851-1864
jl.ev06.247,08 Regulus

   08] There, look through the open window, and you see just now the Regulus in the Leo! See, this is the very primordial sun in this shell-globe! Its incalculable large distance from here, has compressed it to a point. How many such Reguluses could you imagine next to each other? I say to you: countless, - just as your spirit next to the large cosmic man, started to imagine more of them in endless space! And with such pure divine abilities equipped in the spirit, you say that a person is a nothing of nothingness?! Indeed, your body as matter is of course nothing; therefore the great and immortal man should not provide for his temporary and material nothingness, but for his spiritual everything, and in future he cannot say, that he is a nothing of nothingness, but in and with Me everything in everything!

The central sun of the galaxy of the first kind is the central sun of our galaxy, and that is the Milky Way. The astronomers say that this centre is to be sought in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius and that the view to the central sun is prevented. Jesus says that the central sun of the fourth kind is Regulus. Now the central sun of the second kind and the central sun if the third kind might also be stars, which are visble and are known, and might even also have a name as well known as Regulus.

We have therefore dealt with the 245. chapter in detail, but I now also still bring the next one, the 246. chapter, which actually belongs to it.

Chapter 246, jl.ev06.246.01-09:

   01] (The Lord:) “Just like you now, still countless many will emerge from him, and this for as long until all that is judged and imprisoned in him will have gone over to the freest spiritual life; and for as long this whole cosmic man will not have been completely dissolved into the free and independent spiritual, for as long also judgment and hell will continue to exist. And so nobody of you is allowed to worry, that for example the hell spirits of the worst kind will be running short of self-inflicted suffering and tortures.

   02] The rotation time of this sun (i.e. of our sun) around its central sun takes a time period of about 28 000 earth years, which time period for the sun itself therefore comes to one year, that is so much as one year on the sun.

   03] Still before this earth was, the sun had as that, what it is now, gone through this way for you countless often, but also with this earth already so often that you also know no so great number in your calculation for the multitude of such sun years, and still less a number would to be calculated for that, how often it will still go through such of its great cycle to its complete dissolving. I say it to you: eon times eons of such sun years would to be considered as nothing!

   04] But what is the age of a planetary sun against that of a sun area central sun, which existed endless long earlier, before also only one planetary sun illuminated its planet orbiting it?! But what is again this existence duration against a sun universe central sun, what again the duration of it against a universe universe central sun, and how close even nothing even against this sun duration against that of an original central sun of a shell globe, which is basically the original first grandmother of all suns and worlds in a shell globe?!

   05] Which calculator can there determine, how old such an original central sun is, and how old it still will become?! How many central suns and how many whole sun areas have already emerged out of it, which have already long been completely dissolved, and how many new ones have already stepped into their place before unthinkable long times, and how many will still be dissolved after unthinkable long times, and how many new ones will again come into their place?!

   06] But also this original central sun will in future, so before all other suns out of it will be dissolved in endless long times, also get dissolved, but still long not as soon as the whole great world man; for as the dying with a man is a gradual one, therefore that is also the case with the great world man.

   07] Why does the body of an aging person become gradually weaker and weaker? Because certain fibres and nerves die in time and stop functioning, - which effectuates the aging and weakening of the body. And still the person can keep on living for many years to come, without losing his spiritual strength, especially if he always has lived according to the will of God. And so it will be one day the same with the large cosmic man. Once aeons of shell-globes will have been dissolved in him, he will be able to exist for your concepts an endless long time; for the shell-globes in him are what in you humans are your fibres and nerves.

   08] This to you presented large cosmic man is in the most general encompassment the lost son as explained to you earlier, which is now on the verge to turn back, and the father, who meets him, am I as a person among you, and I accept him back again into My Fathers house in every person who lives according to My teaching.

   09] Good for the sinner who does penitence and returns ruefully to Me! However nobody should imagine that the general turnaround will take place in a too short period of time, and that the inhabitants of hell or judgment will not have to suffer and to languish for a too short period of time for their misdeeds and self created disorder! The most stubborn will have to suffer of course the longest and the earlier turnarounds less, - Do you scribe understand this?«

And now still the first two verses of the 248. Chapter, which show how frictions, and not some nuclear processes, but lightning produces "this light- and nourishment substance".

From chapter 248, jl.ev06.248.01-02:

   01] Now Lazarus came to Me and asked Me by saying: » Lord, such a shell-globe, which I now can imagine quite well through Your mercy, despite its immense size, has it no other movement than the general movement of the large cosmic man?«
   02] Said I: » O yes, the movement around its own axis, and this therefore, so that its skin can continuously rub against the everywhere surrounding ether and thereby produces a sufficient amount of electric fire like lightning, which then serves as main nourishment for all the world bodies inside such a globe; since the most extraordinary mass of this substance, which is produced during such globe rubbing with the outer ether, fills the ether space inside the globe. Through the movement of the countless many world bodies inside a globe, this substance is again excited by means of the atmospheres which surround them, is then first transferred to the atmospheres in abundant quantities and then to the world bodies themselves. The bigger a world body - like for instance a sun or central sun - and the more vehemently its movement, the more of this light- and nourishment substance is produced. From the suns, the excess is donated to the planets.

Light is again stimulated by means of the atmosphere. When light hits upon something material, it is again excited. When not, then it is not perceptible to our senses.

Here we therefore have the reason, why the so-called scientists are wrong with all their distance measurements. Because their assumptions are wrong.

It is lightning, from which the energy of the sun comes from, not The Sun’s energy-producing fusion reactions.

In 273 we have shown that the astronomers have no argument, which speaks for these The Sun’s energy-producing fusion reactions, but a very clear argument, which speaks against them.

The astrophysicists are in a position to describe and to explain the origion of astrophysics quite well, and also do so, that it is understandable and comprehensible, but when it then comes to the description of their Sun’s energy-producing fusion reactions, then they have not one single piece of argument.

We come back to the galaxy of the second kind, therefore to that galaxy to which our Milky Way belongs. For the diameter of the central star there, therefore of the central star of the galaxy of the second kind, we take the found value of 4.9E+15 km. For the ratio of galaxy to the central star we take the ration of the solar system to the sun: 2.87E+07.

Then the galaxy of the second kind has a diameter of 1.41E+23 km.

The Local Group, therefore that group to which the Milky Way belongs, has a diameter of 9.46E+19 km. The Virgo Super Cluster, therefore that cluster, to which the Local Group belongs, has a diameter of 9.46E+20 km. And the Laniakea Super Cluster, to which the Virgo Super Cluster belongs, has a diameter of 4.92E+21 km.

This shows that not only the Local Group belongs to the galaxy of the second kind, but also these two super clusters.

That part of the cosmos, which is described by our astronomers, is therefore a very tiny part of the whole.

I want to bring here an example of the whole mentality of scientists and quote Joachim Herrmann, from page 205 of his book "dtv-Atlas zur AStronomie":

Since the publication of Olbers became the best known, one speaks of the Olbers Paradox.

The difficulty concerns the darkness of the night sky. Behind this apparent banal fact truly such a serious problem hides that it almost influences the whole newer development of cosmology.

At least one has to let the man have that he has recognized that it is a banal fact, this darkness of the night sky. But that is it then also already. But there it then also stops. As next expression he speaks of, that behind it a so serious problem hides that it almost influences the whole newer development of cosmology.

The serious problem, which he sees there, is no serious problem at all, not of a scientific kind in any case. The serious problem is of a spiritual kind that the scientists want to remain materialists and, because they think there is no God, are and remain fools, and do not recognize that light is not visible.

But what makes this expression particularly interesting, is that he says that this serious problem almost influences the whole newer development of cosmology.

Here we have it, the whole astronomy and astrophysics is almost based on this wrong assumption, that light is visible, and is therefore almost completely wrong.

But now still a quote from the same page:

From this Olbers Paradox one found then only one way out: the interstellar and intergalactic matter absorbs the light of the far away stars and star systems just so strongly that the blazing bright sky is avoided. But this answer leads again to another difficulty.

J. H. Lambert found in the 18th century a hierarchic world view in which systems of lower order always join higher orders up to the infinite. We know today that there is really a hierarchy in the universe: Systems of 1st order are planets and satellites, 2nd order planets and stars, 3rd order star clusters, star clouds or such, 4th order galaxies, 5th order nebula clusters, 6th order super clusters. But already the systems of 6th order are not proven, and it seems to be quite certain that the hierarchy stops at this point at the latest.

So they can conclude so far that when light is visible, there should be a blazing bright sky.

But at least they can imagine a hierarchy of systems.

Here a picture how Joachim Herrmann imagines hierarchies to look like, from page 204 of his book:


But the whole problem with scientists is and remains that they do not want to recognize the spiritual side of life. And there light is the prime example. Light is something completely spiritual and since they are and have to deal with it all the time, they are dealing with something spiritual all the time, but want to deny its existence.

They want to make light something material, something physical, and because it is something spiritual, they lack understanding of light.

We have spoken about great distances, but now something really great:


The Fly

Jakob Lorber

From Chapter 12.
(March 25, 1842)

12.1 You have heard often enough, in the course of this communication, what is meant by this injury. Not only in this communication, but also in several other communications you have often heard how one can be an individual and at the same time be intimately united in one’s heart with the Creator. Nevertheless, it is still dark in your emotions, and faith has a hard road and the soul finds it hard to understand how man can have, spiritually, a completely independent life, and, at the same time, be so connected with the original life of the Creator, so that together they are only one life.

12.2 Yes truly, such is very difficult to grasp within the earthly limitations, and I tell you: whoever does not learn it from the modest little song of the fly or, still more clearly speaking, whoever does not learn it out of the true innermost humility of the way of the cross, still more clearly speaking, whoever does not learn it from Me, the Father, who am the highest and innermost humility itself, he will never understand how Father and child can be completely one.

12.3 To give you a good picture, let us look at two large objects, namely, a big (cosmic) man called the world, and another huge man called heaven.

12.4 Regarding the first man, in a material sense, entire shell globes, full of suns and worlds, do not make up a nerve module of his, and this man, who in his largeness, sees himself as completely ‘one’ life, just as you see yourselves as just one life, - but does he really consist of just one life?

12.5 To understand that this great cosmic man lives a manifold life, you need only to see a swarm of flies, and they will tell you with their humility that even they, as the first animals, present for themselves a complex life. How much more must man for himself recognize this, and still more an entire world full of people and countless other living beings, and still by far more the sun with its completed beings, and still much more a central sun with its most complete and almighty spirits, and finally a self-contained shell globe.

12.6 But still, all these shell globes, all central suns, all next-to-central suns, all planetary suns, and all other secondary suns with their planets and all the beings on them, are truly nothing but body parts of this large ‘cosmic man’, who for himself has as good a self-contained life as every man on this earth.

12.7 See, that was the view on the material side.

12.8 Now let us direct our eyes to the ‘heavenly man’, whose size compared to the previously mentioned ‘cosmic man’ is as a millionth part of an atom (cosmic man) compared to an atom (heavenly man).

12.9 Yes, the ‘heavenly man’ in its human shape is so big that all countless milliards of shell globes, which comprise the ‘cosmic man’, would easily fit into the tubular opening of one of its little body hairs and they could move about without even touching the sides of the little hair tubes.

12.10 Now, think, how much life this heavenly man already has in one little hair tube, or at least in a part of the body corresponding to the little hair, and how much life he must have in one of his limbs, how much in his heart, and how much in his entire body! And yet, this entire ‘heavenly man’ thinks of himself as only simply existing for himself, while countless milliards and milliards of the most perfect angels and spirits, all self-contained as well, think and live just as he does. Yes, in this heavenly men, there are still other relationships in which beings that think alike and love alike, form a union which, corresponding to an earthly body or at least a part of one, represent completely a man that can think and feel entirely for itself, as if he were only an individual man!

12.11 Yes, I tell you, in addition: In My endlessness, there are several such heavens, and each heaven is, by itself, a complete man, and all the heavens together form another endless man, which cannot be thought or conceived of by anyone but Me, since it is actually My body, or God in His endlessness, which thinks and feels His person and individuality in the most determined and clearest way of all, - and what an abundance of life in Him!

12.12 If you now compare these two pictures a little, and then review them in the spirit, you will soon realize that in one eternal and endless Life, countless lives can move about freely and there enjoy the highest of life’s delights, while they are only a part of the principal life in God.

12.13 See, thus sings the fly in its humility. And humility is man’s actual true principal fly. For, as the fly, on a continent, begins to gain victory over life within itself, so does humility within man begin to take up the freest of all life from God, and to enclose it within himself and then, through its perseverance and courage, to grow and nurture this holy treasure within, which is the “living Christ” in every real man. And when this life has gone into all parts of the soul, and through the soul into the flesh, then such an occurrence, the actual working in the spirit, is a victory, yes truly, the greatest of all victories which a man can attain, for by this victory he has captured the highest life of God within himself, through love has made it his own, and has become one with the eternal




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